The New Paradigm for Nature Protection: A Model for Russia’s High North?

  • Christel Elvestad
  • Frode Nilssen
  • Ludmila Ivanova

Abstract

This article addresses whether the new Western paradigm for nature protection, combining conservation and local development, could serve as a model for nature protection in Russia, and for Russia’s High North in particular. The article introduces the new paradigm of protected areas and the Russian protected area (PA) system. Three different types of PAs in the Murmansk Oblast are then presented, focusing on the role protected areas can play in terms of local development. The new paradigm has been embraced in the West, but the dominant form of PA in Russia is still the strictly protected areas – zapovedniks - which do not allow any form of economic activity including nature-based tourism. The number of national parks and nature parks in Russia is slowly increasing, but to establish and develop these forms of PAs suited to promote local develop- ment is challenging. The situation in the Murmansk Oblast illustrates problems such as conflict of interest between different stakeholders, lack of support from the authorities – most notably at Federal level – and bureaucratic hindrances including the system for leasing of land as well as weak tourism infrastructure and competence. However, local “park enthusiasm,” a growing number of tourists and new governmental strategies may contribute to local development in the years to come.

Keywords: nature conservation, the new paradigm for protected areas, local de- velopment, nature-based tourism, zapovedniks

Citation: Arctic Review on Law and Politics, vol. 3, 2/2011 p. 199–221. ISSN 1891-6252

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Published
2011-10-31
How to Cite
Elvestad, C., Nilssen, F., & Ivanova, L. (2011). The New Paradigm for Nature Protection: A Model for Russia’s High North?. Arctic Review, 2(2). Retrieved from https://arcticreview.no/index.php/arctic/article/view/22
Section
Original Articles
Keywords
nature conservation, the new paradigm for protected areas, local de- velopment, nature-based tourism, zapovedniks