Governing Marine Protected Areas in a Changing Climate: Private Stakeholders’ Perspectives


  • Xuechan Ma Leiden University


Climate change has become one of the most pressing problems for both nature and human lives. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are part of a “natural solution” to climate change. Most of existing MPAs are governed by government agencies rather than private stakeholders such as NGOs, local communities and for-profit enterprises. Nevertheless, with the global push to create MPAs, the number of privately governed MPAs is expected to increase. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the role of private stakeholders in enhancing the governance effectiveness of MPAs so as to improve their capability to counter any adverse impact brought by the changing climate. After analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of the practice of each category of private stakeholders are uncovered and specific recommendations are proposed to promote the future practice. With the increasing number of privately governed MPAs in the future, this paper serves as a starting point and contributes to the literature on the study of the private governance of MPAs in the context of the changing climate.

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How to Cite

Ma, X. (2018). Governing Marine Protected Areas in a Changing Climate: Private Stakeholders’ Perspectives. Arctic Review, 9, 335–358.



Original Articles


climate change, marine protected areas, private governance, NGOs, local communities, for-profit enterprises, resilience